Paolo Cuttitta, Jana Häberlein and Polly Pallister-Wilkins differentiate multiple actors connected to border death, as well as with “what could be seen as its counterpart: survival (from the survivors’ perspective) or rescue (from the rescuers’ perspective).“ (Cuttitta et al. 2020: 35). They outline the following actors: migrants (survivors), migrant’s relatives and friends, news media, researchers, artists, religious ministers etc., state authorities, the border security industry, international and intergovernmental organizations, NGOs/CSOs, smugglers and other private actors (eg. SAR NGOs). In their overview authors point not only to a variegated multiplicity of actors but also highlight that these actors are “guided by different principles and motivations, which contribute in different ways and to different extents to create the conditions for deaths to be more or less likely to occur or be prevented. Moreover, distinctive public and private actors enter the stage in the post-mortem phase.” (Cuttitta et al. 2020: 35).


Cuttitta, Paolo, Jana Häberlein and Polly Pallister-Wilkins. 2020. „Various Actors. The Border Death Regime“. In Border Deaths. Causes, Dynamics and Consequences of Migration-related Mortality. Paolo Cuttitta and Tamara Last eds. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 35-51.