Saopštenje povodom akcije prinudnog premeštanja iregularizovanih migranata od strane žandarmerije u opštini Šid

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U zoru 13. 11. 2020. Žandarmerija je sprovela akciju “pronalaska iregularnih migranata”, o čijem postupku je na You tube kanalu MUP-a postavljen video i publikovana vest na zvaničnoj strani MUP RS. Osobe u pokretu su pohvatane, i prinudno odvedene u kampove.

Između ostalog, ministar unutrašnjih poslova Vulin izjavio je:

Država radi svoj posao. Zbog pojačanog broja i priliva migranata, koje se sada oseća i na prostoru Šida, Žandarmerija će u narednim danima dežurati na teritoriji ove opštine i voditi računa da se na ulicama ne nalaze oni koji na njima ne treba da budu, posebno da nema nekontrolisanih okuplјanja.“

Nijedan migrant koji nije u našem sistemu i nema uredne dozvole, ne sme i ne može da se kreće po našim ulicama, posebno ne sme da pravi  kampove ili da se zadržava na prostoru gde to nije regulisano i dozvolјeno.”

Sada kada imamo krizu sa korona virusom, ovi lјudi mogu predstavlјati  zdravstveni problem i za sebe i za naše građane i zbog toga moraju biti u našim kampovima gde su kontrolisani i gde imaju svu moguću medicinsku pomoć i zaštitu

Međutim, povod za sprovođenje ove akcije, kao i način na koji je to urađeno, nisu jasni niti opravdani.

Pre svega, nije jasno niti opravdano zašto je angažovana žandarmerija da bi se nekoliko desetina ljudi prebacilo u kampove. Dok se sa jedne strane stalno ističe da je kroz Srbiju prošlo preko milion izbeglica, a gotovo da nije bilo incidenata, da se kriminal u migrantskoj populaciji uglavnom odnosi na sukobe između njih i da nisu zabeleženi slučajevi napada na građane, kao i da policija, po svim prijavama, postupa u skladu sa Krivičnim zakonikom, odnosno, “dobro radi svoj posao”, ostaje nejasno po kom osnovu je angažovana Žandarmerija, kao posebna jedinica policije koja izvršava policijske i druge unutrašnje poslove i zadatke, kada postoji stanje povećanog rizika po stanje javne bezbednosti, kao i ugrožavanje bezbednosti ljudi i imovine u većem obimu (UREDBA O SPECIJALNOJ I POSEBNIM JEDINICAMA POLICIJE).

Vrlo je lako izvesti zaključak da je u pitanju demonstracija sile i zastrašivanje izbeglica, kao i dodvoravanje antimigrantskoj retorici: kad ljudi vide da je potrebna žandarmerija da “obuzda” migrante naravno da će biti u još većem strahu i podložniji fabrikovanim vestima o kriminalu poput silovanja, ubistava, razbojništava, koji se na opskurnim portalima pripisuje ljudima u pokretu.

Takođe, nejasno je na kakve dozvole se ministar Vulin poziva, kada tako nešto nije uopšte predviđeno zakonom. Takođe, naš Zakon o azilu i privremenoj zastiti ne poznaje tzv “zatvorene kampove” kakvi postoje u nekim drugim evropskim zemljama. Član 49 Zakona o azilu i privremenoj zaštiti garantuje slobodu kretanja, odnosno propisuje da tražioci azila imaju pravo da borave na teritoriji R Srbije i da se slobodno kreću. Sloboda kretanja kao osnovno ljudsko pravo garantovana je i Ustavom RS, pa se njeno ograničavanje nikako ne može opravdati samo činjenicom da neko nije otpočeo zvaničnu azilnu proceduru. Ova sloboda može da se ograniči samo odlukom nadležnog organa u svakom pojedinačnom slučaju, odnosno, za svakog pojedinca ponaosob a ne nekakvim “dozvolama” ili samovoljom MUPa. Pritom, izbeglice se zadržavaju na javnim površinama (u šumama i sl.) i ne postoje nikakve zabrane za bilo koga da boravi na javnim površinama. Pitamo se da li to znači da će država da se prikloni Narodnim patrolama i da sada “čisti” sve gradove i ulice od ljudi “koji ne treba da budu na ulicama”, preskačući čitav zakonski definisan proces, i tako sama krši sopstveni pravni red.

Skrećemo pažnju na to da se krivica uporno svaljuje na ljude u pokretu zbog toga “što nisu u sistemu”, iako je to često upravo posledica nefunkcionisanja tog istog “sistema”, odnosno administrativnog aparata koji bi trebalo da im to omogući. Činjenica je da su ljudi u pokretu do sada bili prepušteni samima sebi i nisu dobijali mesta u kampovima, nisu registrovani itd, a sada se odjednom isti taj nemar koji je država pokazala prema njima svaljuje na njih same. Država ima zakonsku obavezu da pruži međunarodnu zaštitu svima koji su u potrebi, međutim izbeglice stalno dobijaju pogrešne informacije, policija odbija da ih registruje, česta su premeštanja iz jednog kampa u drugi, itd. Manje od 2% ljudi zapravo uspe da podnese zahtev za azil i da otpočne proceduru. Tako da je nejasno na koji se to “naš sistem” ministar Vulin poziva, kad administracija radi sve moguće da onemogući ljudima da budu u sistemu i kad faktički skoro niko i nije u sistemu. Ispada da je “sistem” u stvari sveden na “sistem kampova”, gde je jedini “papir” koji ljudi dobiju iskaznica tog kampa, i čija je suština da im ograniči slobodu kretanja, a ne da sprovede zakonima propisane administrativne procedure.

Iako su epidemije već korišćene kao izgovor za nezakonito ograničavanje kretanja ljudi u pokretu, često uz obrazloženje da je u kampovima lakše uspostaviti sanitarni nadzor, prevenciju i tretman bolesti, iskustvo sa terena pokazuje ne samo da je higijenska situacija u kampovima nezavidna a mere poput držanja fizičke distance neizvodljive, već i da izbeglice vrlo često ne dobijaju čak ni hitnu medicinsku pomoć, a posebno ne “svu moguću” kako tvrdi ministar Vulin. Ta čuvena medicinska pomoć je posebno problematična u kampovima u Šidu, Adaševcima i Principovcu. Imali smo slučajeve ljudi kojima je hitno trebala pomoć a nisu je dobijali danima.

Iako je ministar Vulin je poručio građanima: “Verujte svojoj državi, ne nasedajte lažnim vestima i pustite državu da radi svoj posao. Kada je u pitanju migrantska kriza, kroz ovu zemlјu je prošlo preko milion migranata, a gotovo da nije bilo incidenata i to nije slučajno. To je zato što naša policija, zajedno sa svim ostalim  bezbednosnim službama, dobro radi svoj posao“,  izvedena akcija se lako može protumačiti kao populistički gest koji podilazi antimigrantskoj histeriji i raspiruje maštu o tome zašto je neophodno dodatno angažovanje specijalnih jedinica policije da se “čuva” stanovništvo od (neobjašnjenih) pretnji i održava/zavodi (i inače nenarušeni) red. U svakom slučaju, akcija se usmerava na one koji su najmarginalizovaniji, najlakši “žrtveni jarac”, na one koji ne mogu sami da se brane, niti imaju glas. Kroz diskurs opasnosti, ne zna se da li od kriminala, zaraze, ili nečeg trećeg, ljudi u pokretu su kriminalizovani i odvedeni u kampove. Zakonska podloga ovih akcija je krajnje upitna. 

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ERIM

Transbalkanska solidarnost

Šid, Srbija, ERIM terensko istraživanje 2020.

At dawn, 13th of November 2020, the Gendarmerie of the Republic of Serbia carried out the action of “finding irregular migrants” after which the video was posted on the official YouTube channel of the Ministry of Interior jointly with the news which was published on the official website of the Ministry of the Interior. People on the move were captured and forcibly taken to camps.

Among other things, Aleksandar Vulin, the Minister of Interior said:

“The state is doing its job. Due to the increased number and influx of migrants, which is now being felt in the area of ​​Sid, the gendarmerie will be on duty in the coming days on the territory of this municipality to make sure that there are no people on the streets who should not be there, especially that there are no uncontrolled gatherings. “

“No migrant who is not in our system and does not have a proper permit, is allowed and cannot move on our streets, and they are especially not allowed to make camps or stay in an area where it is not regulated and allowed.”

“Now that we have a coronavirus crisis, these people can be a health risk for themselves and our citizens and therefore they have to be in our camps where they are controlled and where they have all possible medical care and protection.”

However, the reason for carrying out this action, as well as the manner in which it was done, are not clear or justified.

First of all, it is not clear or justified why the gendarmerie was hired to transfer several dozen of people to the camps. While on the one hand it is constantly pointed out that over a million refugees passed through Serbia, and there were almost no incidents, that the crimes in the migrant population mainly refer to conflicts between themselves and that no cases of attacks on Serbian citizens were recorded, as well as that the police acts in accordance with the Criminal Code upon all criminal reports submitted, ie, “does its job well”, it remains unclear on what basis the gendarmerie is engaged, especially having in mind that it is a special police unit that performs police and other internal affairs and tasks, when there is a state of increased risk to public security or increased endangerment of the security of people and property on a larger scale (REGULATION ON SPECIAL POLICE UNITS).

It is quite clear that this act is a demonstration of force and intimidation of refugees, as well as flattery of anti-immigrant rhetoric: when general public sees that the gendarmerie is needed to “restrain” migrants, they will be even more afraid and more susceptible to fake news about crime committed by refugees such as rapes, murders, robberies, which are attributed to people on the move on obscure portals.

Also, it is unclear on what kind of permits Minister Vulin refers to, when Serbian legislation doesn’t proclaim any kind of permits. Also, our Law on Asylum and Temporary Protection does not recognize the so-called “closed camps” as they exist in some other European countries. Article 49 of the Law on Asylum and Temporary Protection guarantees freedom of movement, ie prescribes that asylum seekers have the right to reside on the territory of the Republic of Serbia and to move freely. Freedom of movement as one of the basic human rights is also guaranteed by the Constitution and its restriction cannot be justified by the fact that someone has not started the official asylum procedure. This freedom can be limited only by the decision of the competent authority in each individual case, that is, for each individual separatly, and not by some “permits” or arbitrariness of the Ministry of Interior. At the same time, refugees are staying in public spaces (in forests, etc.) and there are no prohibitions for anyone to be in public spaces. We have to wonder if this means that the state will side with the National Patrols and “clean” all cities and streets of people “who should not be on the streets”, skipping the entire legally defined process, and thus violating its own legal order.

We draw attention to the fact that the blame is persistently placed on people on the move because “they are not in the system”, although this is often a consequence of the non-functioning of the same “system”, ie the administration that should enable them protection within the system. The fact is that people on the move have so far been left to fend for themselves and have not been given places in camps, not registered, etc., and now all of a sudden, the same negligence that the state has shown towards them is falling on them. The state has a legal obligation to provide international protection to all those in need, however, refugees constantly receive misinformation, the police refuses to register them, there are frequent transfers from one camp to another, and so on. Less than 2% of people actually manage to apply for asylum and start the procedure. Having all of this in mind, it is unclear to which “our system” Minister Vulin is referring to, when the administration is doing everything possible to prevent people from being in the system and when in fact almost no one is actually in the system. It turns out that the “system” is in fact reduced to a “camp system”, where the only “paper” that people receive is the camp’s ID card, and whose essence is to restrict their freedom of movement, and not to implement the administrative procedures proclaimed by law.

Although the pandemic has already been used as an excuse to illegally restrict the movement of people on the move, often with the explanation that it is easier to establish sanitary supervision, prevention and treatment in camps, experience from the field shows that hygiene of the camps does not fulfil basic standards, but also that refugees very often do not even receive emergency medical care, and especially not “all possible” as Minister Vulin claims. That famous medical help is especially problematic in the camps in Sid, Adasevci and Principovac (all close to the Croatian border). We had cases of people who urgently needed medical help and didn’t get it for days.

Although Minister Vulin told the citizens: “Trust your country, do not fall for false news and let the state do its job. When it comes to the migrant crisis, over a million migrants passed through this country, and there were almost no incidents and that is not accidental. This is because our police, together with all other security services, are doing their job well “, the action can easily be interpreted as a populist gesture that subverts anti-immigrant hysteria and stimulates the imagination as to why additional police special forces are needed to “guard” local population from (unexplained) threats and maintains / institutes (otherwise undisturbed) order. In any case, the action is aimed at those who are the most marginalized, the easiest “scapegoat”, at those who cannot defend themselves or have a voice. Through the rhetoric of potential danger, it is not known whether from crime, infection, or something else, people on the move were criminalized and taken to camps. The legal basis of these actions is extremely questionable.

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ERIM

Transbalkan solidarity